You can choose what fields will be shown on the Filter panel by using the Add/Remove field buttons in the page designer.
You can customize your data appearance on the Filter Panel using formatting options on the "Filter as" settings dialog. To open this dialog select the field and click on the View As/Edit As button in the field properties on the right panel.
On the Filter As tab select Filter format on the left and set appropriate options.
Now you can see that the field is displayed on the Page Designer inside the Filter panel element. Those fields have Filter As button in properties to the right.
You can click them to open the Filter as settings of the field.
Another way to enable/disable filter on your pages is to use Search and Filter settings.